Updating segmentation schemes

Satisfying page faults may require freeing pages that will soon have to be re-read from disk.

As each fault occurs the operating system needs to go through the extensive memory management routines perhaps causing multiple I/Os which might including writing other process pages to disk and reading pages of the active process from disk.For simplicity, main memory is called "RAM" (an acronym of "random-access memory") and secondary storage is called "disk" (a shorthand for "hard disk drive"), but the concepts do not depend on whether these terms apply literally to a specific computer system. A swapped-out program would be current but its execution would be suspended while its RAM was in use by another program.A program might include multiple overlays that occupy the same memory at different times.Overlays are not a method of paging RAM to disk but merely of minimizing the program's use of RAM.Subsequent architectures used memory segmentation, and individual program segments became the units exchanged between disk and RAM.

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